In 1990, Essma Ben Hamida and her husband Michael Cracknell established Enda (Environment and Development Action). Microcredit operations started in 1995 with the objective to empower women in Tunisia.

Over 20 years later, Enda has become a leading microfinance institution in Tunisia and the Arab region, serving clients all over the country.

Enda targets the most vulnerable entrepreneurs and has a significant portion of rural and female clients. Essma: “I can see the changes that access to finance has brought our clients. It has made their lives fuller and less stressful. They earn, they decide, they are respected, but most of all they are proud of themselves. Access to finance empowers and changes lives.”

Enda’s focus is on the needs of its clients. This can be illustrated by the education loan and the home improvement loan it has developed. Essma: “The school drop-out rate is high in Tunisia, and Enda’s education loan helps families cover the costs of equipping their children for school which can be high when there are several of them.”

The home improvement loan, Darna, is in strong demand. A majority of Tunisians own their own home, however small. Darna allows people to pay for small improvements like adding a simple bathroom or linking their home to the sewage system.

Through its branches, Enda offers clients a place where they can meet and where they can also take part in workshops in different areas, from negotiation tactics to marketing products to understanding women’s rights and discussing domestic violence.

Impact figures 2016

Number of loan clients


Percentage female clients


Percentage rural clients


Average loan amount

514 EUR

Enda is in the process of transforming into a financial institution so as to expand its products and services. Through loans provided by Triodos Fair Share Fund and Triodos Microfinance Fund, Enda will further grow its portfolio and expand its outreach.

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